καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν, καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων (John 1:4.b)

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“καὶ” is a coordinating conjunction, meaning “and”.

“ἡ” is a feminine singular nominative article, meaning “the”.

“ζωὴ” is a feminine singular nominative noun, meaning “life”.  It is the subject of this sentence.

“ἦν”, a third person singular imperfect indicative verb, meaning “was”, but again because it is imperfect, meaning “was and forever will be”.

As before, “καὶ” is a coordinating conjunction, meaning “and”.

As before, “ἡ” is a feminine singular nominative article, meaning “the”.

In the same way, “ζωὴ” is a feminine singular nominative noun, meaning “life”, the subject of this coordinate clause.

“τὸ” is a neuter singular nominative article, meaning “the”.

“φῶς” is a feminine singular nominative noun, in apposition with “ζωὴ”, indicating that this word, the “light” is identified with the “life”.

“τῶν” is a masculine plural genitive article, meaning “of the”.

“ἀνθρώπων” is a masculine plural genitive noun, bringing it together with the previous word’s meaning, and producing “of the men” or “of humankind”.

The meaning of this clause is “and the life was the light of humankind.”

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CC BY 4.0 καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν, καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων (John 1:4.b) by Dennis Glover is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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